World Wetlands Day (2nd February)

In the city of Iran Ramsar an International Conference on the Conservation of Waterlands and Waterfowl held in February 1971 where International Agencies of United Nation and other Governmental and Non-governmental agencies passed a resolution to take care of the water reservoirs throughout the world. This day is celebrated every year on the 2nd February.


The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with the actions aimed at raising public awareness of wetland values and benefits in general and the Ramsar Convention in particular.
At present, there are 163 participating contries all over the world. Each party country to the Ramsar Convention has designated a number of internationally important wetlands within its territory for protection wetlands resources. Among other nations, Pakistan has also endorsed the Ramsar Convention and became an astringent faction to the Convention in 1976. In Pakistan, there are 19 Ramsar sites — nine in Sindh, five in Balochistan, three in Punjab, and two in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Pakistan possesses a great variety of wetlands distributed almost through out the country from the coastal mangroves and mudflats on the Indus Delta to the glacial lakes of the high Himalayas. Some of the important wetlands in Pakistan are, Drigh Lake, Jiwani Coastal Wetland, Jubho Lagoon, Miani Hor, Nurri Lagoon, Runn of Kutch, Tanda Dam, Taunsa Barrage, Thanedar Wala, Uchhali Complex, the Sindh and Makran coast, Indus Delta and River System.
These wetlands are the lifeline of wetlands dependent local communities who not only benefit from the substantial economic growth but are also a source of staple food, livestock grazing and fodder, fuel-wood, transport, energy generation and irrigation. Around the world about one billion people eat fish as wetlands product, in addition to crab, shrimp and salmon. Wetlands are also a source of rice, the staple food of over three billion people throughout the world.

In addition, these ecosystems provide essential habitats for a number of important mammal species, like the smooth coated otter, Indus dolphin, fishing cat, hog deer, and wild boar besides waterfowl. They connect nations through water flow and the migratory birds and fauna that migrate from one country to the other.

Conservation of wetlands is essential because they are very fertile and productive areas. Wetlands are found all over the world, the only continent that does not have them is Antarctica. Wetlands play a key role in keeping our water clean because they store and filter water that passes through them. Wetland also play an important role in flood control by storing excess water which seeps gradually back into the ground and becomes available to people for their use in the form of purified springs and streams. This supplies people with clean water. Therefore, wetlands are important part of watersheds.
There are many types of plants, bacteria and animals associated with wetlands that help remove many harmful impurities. Wetlands and their surrounding upstream and downstream serve as habitat for many species of plants, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish and many invertebrates, where they obtain shelter, food and water. The fauna associated with wetlands use them as breeding and nesting grounds and resting areas. Wetland vegetation not only traps sediments but also controls soil erosion by stabilising the soil against erosive waves and currents.

Besides their historical importance and cultural significance, wetlands help to promotion the wellbeing of the local people by setting up small-scale business activities. We all know about the folklore associated with Lake Saiful Malook. Though situated in remote areas, many people still make an effort to go to these places to enjoy the natural beauty of wetlands.

However, increased human population around wetlands contributes to growing biotic pressure which has posed threats to the existence of wetlands on account of unsustainable practices and lack of awareness at large.
Conversion, diversion, agriculture expansion and changed land use practices, increased sedimentation, drainage, pollution, hunting, and over-exploitation of wetland resources are some of the contributing drivers that bring about significant changes in the ecology of the wetlands. Due to these factors both wildlife and people suffer. It presents a sad reality that the condition of the existing wetlands is gradually deteriorating which needs to be conserved as they are our natural assets.



314 Crescent Manor by M. Jones


Mark and Nathan Connor are estranged twins. There is little to connect them, save their current residence at 314 Crescent Manor, an old building situated in the center of the city. The tenants of the Manor are never housed at random. With its large, brooding stained glass tree bearing down on them from the fifth floor to the first, it watches, and waits for one world to topple into the next.

For more information about the author and her work, please visit

Click here to download pdf file (size: 1.4 MB)

National Day of Nauru (31st January)

MANILA, Philippines – Nauru is going to celebrate its National Day tomorrow  (Thursday).  Happy National day to the people of Nauru from MSF ( ,  Located in the Western Pacific Ocean, Nauru is an oval-shaped island which lies 42 kilometers south of the equator. The island is considered the world’s smallest island nation, just 21 square kilometers. The nearest country to Nauru is Kiribati, whose Ocean Island is only 350 kilometers to the east. The present inhabitants of Nauru are of mixed Polynesian, Micronesian, and Melanesian races. About four-fifths of the people are Christians. Nauruans and English are the main languages.


During the first half of the 20th century, Nauru was a “renter state,” a term to describe those states whose national revenues are mostly derived from renting indigenous resources to external clients. The island was well known for its massive phosphate reserves. As early as 1907, Nauru was a major exporter of phosphate, but in the 1980’s, the phosphate deposits ran out after numerous years of mining.

In 1947, Nauru became a United Nations trust territory, administered by Australia. The country’s Local Government and Legislative Council were formed in 1957 and 1965, respectively. In 1968, the Nauruans gained their complete independence.

Commercial and agricultural exchanges have been active between the Philippines and Nauru. The linguistic, religious, and ethnic affinities between our two peoples are responsible for the close bilateral relations.

We congratulate the people and government of Nauru led by H.E., President Marcus Stephen, on the occasion of their National Day. We wish them all the best and success in all their endeavors.

Nauru parliament Suomi: Naurun parlamenttitalo...

Nauru parliament Suomi: Naurun parlamenttitalo Polski: Budynek parlamentu Português: Parlamento de Nauru Русский: Здание Парламента Науру Svenska: Parlamentshuset i Nauru (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Good things come in small packages…
Nauru is indeed a tiny island nation. Remember to treat it with care.

When taking a vacation on an isolated coral atoll like Nauru, it is important to remember that many of the resources necessary to sustain the island are imported.  Even natural fresh water is limited so electricity and drinking water is at a premium.

What to bring on your holiday
Remember to bring beach wear for sunbathing/swimming but also conservative wear for visits around the island.  Sturdy shoes for a visit to the phosphate interior is a good idea, as is some light wet weather gear for tropical rain. Sun block, insect repellent and all the other Pacific Island necessities would be a good idea; however there are shops on the island to provide some of these products.

Nauru’s Weather
Nauru’s weather is tropical with temperatures ranging between 24.4 Celsius and 33.9 Celsius.  Heat is kept temperate by cooling sea breezes.  The tropical weather has a monsoonal pattern, with a rainy season from November to February.  North-east trade winds blow from March to October and average humidity is 80%.


Nauru’s Land
Nauru boasts 30 kilometres of coastline, ringed on all sides by the amazing expanse of the Pacific Ocean.  Sandy beaches rise to a fertile coastal belt around raised coral reefs.  The interior is a raised, unique moonscape made up of limestone pinnacles. The legacy of the island’s only export, phosphate mining, the plateaus are an important part of the island’s economic history. There is talk of a secondary source of phosphate being utilised.  However some of this land is now also being considered for other purposes, such as regeneration and building projects.


Nauru’s Flora and Fauna
Birdwatchers will enjoy plenty of native sea bird sights.  Surrounding deep water provides accessible deep sea game fishing for tuna, marlin, skipjack, barracuda and many more.

Natural vegetation includes pandanus trees, coconut palms, tomano trees and the Pacific’s most recognised flower, the beautiful frangipani.  The land surrounding the Buada lagoon is used to grow some vegetables and bananas.

Nauruan Public Holidays

  • Angam Day (26 October) – The word Angam means homecoming and the day commemorates the various times in history when the size of the Nauruan population has returned to 1,500 which is thought to be the minimum number necessary for survival.
  • Independence Day (31 January)
  • Constitution Day (17 May)
  • National Youth Day (25 September)
  • Statutory holidays: New Year’s Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December), Easter (Good Friday, Easter Monday and Tuesday)

Money: Nauru uses the Australian Dollar.

Time zone: Nauru is GMT/UTC +12

Electricity: Australian plugs and sockets are used

Visas: Visitors from commonwealth countries can be granted visas on arrival whereas visitors from non-commonwealth countries need to apply for visas.  They can apply for visas via email at or at .

Departure Tax:  Departure tax has now been included in the airfares.

Capital: Due to its small size, Nauru has no capital.  The government’s offices are based in the Yaren district.

Language: Nauruan, but English is also widely spoken. Perhaps due to the isolation of the island of Nauru, the Nauruan language is said not to be similar to any other Polynesian island language.

Some useful Nauruan words:

Ekamawir Omo – Greetings/Hello/Welcome
Tubwa – Thank you
Omo Yoran – Good Morning

Activities on Nauru

Holidaying on Nauru promises to be a unique experience but it still offers all the benefits of ‘island time’ and Pacific Island relaxation.  Relax back and enjoy the tropical sunshine, snooze at your hotel or get out and about and see the island.  Here’s a list things to do on extraordinary Nauru:Nauru2


Deep sea game fishing
Locals with privately owned boats hire out their vessels to take you deep sea game fishing on request.  There are a number of local people involved and it is best to organise your trip through the staff at your hotel.  Journeys to deeper waters surrounding Nauru are undertaken dependent on availability of boats, weather and sea conditions etc.  However once out on the Pacific blue, anglers can catch a great selection of fish including marlin, yellowfin tuna, skipjack, barracuda and more.


Scuba diving
Clear water and an unspoiled reef mean scuba diving from Nauru is a popular activity.  There is a variety of marine life to be seen and one significant wreck to dive.  Scuba diving equipment can be hired on the island.

It’s not a real vacation if you can’t cool off in the big blue…locals recommend the beach next to the Menen Hotel as the best place to take a swim.

The central area of Nauru offers an interesting walk around the pinnacles that make up the remains of the phosphate mine.  Menen Hotel organizes walking tours through this area.  Otherwise, the island’s green belt circles the island and provides roads for driving or walking.



Shopping – arts and crafts
Menen Hotel boutique has gifts and books. Other small stores sell a variety of food and goods.  Tobacco and alcohol are duty free.  The Nauru Philatelic Bureau offers a range of sought after Philatelic issues of Nauru.  Arts and crafts are available from small owner operated stores dotted around the island.  Artisans sell their own artworks from these stalls within their own districts.

Food and Entertainment
Restaurants offering a variety of cuisine and provides regular barbecues.  Reynaldo’s is another well known local restaurant, offering Chinese cuisine.


National Day of Australia (26th January)

Happy greetings to the people of Australia who are celebrating their national day on 26th of January.  The national day which is called Australia Day has become the biggest annual civic event in Australia.

Citizenship ceremonies are also commonly held with Australia Day now the largest occasion for the acquisition of Australian citizenship. On 26 January 2012, more than 300 Citizenship Ceremonies took place and 15,000 people from 153 countries took Australian Citizenship. In recent years many citizenship ceremonies have included an affirmation by existing citizens.

Various music festivals are held on Australia Day, such as the Big Day Out, the Triple J Hottest 100, and the Australia Day Live Concert which is televised nationally. For many years an international cricket match has been held on Australia Day at the Adelaide Oval. These matches have included both Test matches and One Day Internationals.


Covering a total area of 7.69 million square kilometers, mainland Australia is the world’s largest island – but smallest continent.

In distance, the continent stretches about 3700 kilometers from north to south and 4000 kilometers from east to west, making it the sixth-largest nation after Russia, Canada, China, the United States and Brazil.  Australia currently has a population of almost 24 million people.

Australian Government:

Australia has three levels of government – the federal Australian Government, the governments of the six states and two territories, and around 700 local government authorities. Australia has been a nation with a single national government since 1 January 1901. Although it is divided into states and territories which have their own state governments, we are all united as one nation.

Australia is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom as its head of state, which is why Australia’s national flag comprises the Union Jack (along with the Commonwealth Star and the Southern Cross).

Culture in Australia:

Australian society is made up of people from a rich variety of cultural, ethnic, linguistic and religious backgrounds, and this is a defining feature of modern Australian society. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have inhabited Australia for tens of thousands of years. Most Australians are immigrants or the descendants of immigrants who arrived during the past two hundred years from more than 200 countries. The most commonly spoken language in Australia is English, and the most commonly practiced religion is Christianity, although foreign languages and other religions are also common.

Cities, states and territories:

Australia is divided into six states and two territories.


Canberra is the national capital and the centre of government. It is located approximately 290 kilometers south of Sydney in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Canberra lies on the ancient lands of the Indigenous Ngunnawal people, and its name is thought to mean ‘meeting place’, from the Aboriginal word ‘Kamberra’. It is home to important national institutions, including the Australian Parliament and the High Court of Australia.

New South Wales is Australia’s oldest and most populated state. It was originally settled as a penal colony on the shores of Port Jackson where the bustling capital city of Sydney now stands. More than a third of Australians live in New South Wales, and Sydney is the nation’s largest city.

Victoria is the smallest of the mainland states in size but the second most populated. Melbourne is the capital and is Australia’s second most populated city. During the gold rush of the 1850s, it became one of the world’s largest and wealthiest cities. Melbourne is sometimes referred to as the “cultural capital of Australia” and is the birthplace of Australian film, television, art, dance and music. Victorians’ enthusiasm for sport is also legendary and this is where Australian Rules football began.

Queensland is Australia’s second-largest state in size. The state capital is Brisbane, the third most populated city in Australia. Queenslanders enjoy more winter sunshine and warmth than most other Australian states and it’s perfect for all types of outdoor activities and water sports. Queensland is also home to the world famous Great Barrier Reef as well as five World Heritage listed areas.

South Australia is a state in the southern central part of the country which covers some of the most arid parts of the continent. It is the fourth largest of Australia’s states and shares its borders with all of the mainland states and the Northern Territory. The state capital is Adelaide, the fifth-largest city in Australia. South Australia has a thriving arts scene and is sometimes known as the ‘Festival State’, with more than 500 festivals taking place there every year.

At the top end of Australia lies the Northern Territory.

Darwin, on the northern coast, is the capital, and Alice Springs the principal inland town. Alice Springs is the physical heart of Australia, almost exactly at the nation’s geographical centre. The Northern Territory is home to the famous Uluru (Ayers Rock), Kata Tjuta (the Olga’s) and Kakadu National Park.

Western Australia is Australia’s largest state by area. About three-quarters of the state’s population live in the capitalPerth, this is the fourth most populated city in Australia. The east of the state is mostly desert while to the west the state is bound by almost 13000 kilometers of pristine coastline. In the 1890s gold was discovered and mining is still one of the state’s biggest industries.

Weather in Australia:

Australia experiences temperate weather for most of the year but the climate can vary due to the size of continent. The northern states typically experience warm weather much of the time, with the southern states experiencing cooler winters. Australia is also one of the driest continents on earth with an average annual rainfall of less than 600 millimeters. Like all countries in the southern hemisphere, Australia’s seasons are opposite to those in the northern hemisphere. December to February is summer; March to May is autumn; June to August is winter; and September to November is spring.

Sandy Beaches:


Don’t miss the world-famous beaches Bondi and Manly. The city’s coastal walks are a perfect way to take in the golden beaches, dramatic headlands, sandstone cliffs and national parks.

Melbourne is a well planned city with wide flat streets laid out in a grid. Renowned for it’s shopping, in the jigsaw of tiny laneways hidden behind the main streets you’ll find one-off boutiques, galleries, and hole-in-the-wall cafés, bars and restaurants. With its rich multicultural heritage, you’ll find everything from European-inspired cafés to authentic Asian food. Try Lygon Street for its famous Italian cuisine. Further afield, Victoria Street, Richmond; Johnston Street, Fitzroy; and Chapel Street, Prahran offer great shopping and more casual dining.


Hop on a tram to St Kilda; stroll along the Yarra River, or wander through the many parks and gardens that surround the city centre.

Enjoy the bayside beaches that stretch along the arc of Port Phillip Bay. Less than an hour away to the east you’ll find world-class wineries in the Yarra Valley and Dandenong Ranges. Head west for the historic goldfields of Bendigo and Ballarat. To the north lies alpine country. South you’ll find the watery playgrounds of the Mornington Peninsula and the Great Ocean Road.

Extending from the shores of Lake Burley Griffin, the well-planned roads of Canberra offer extensive cycle paths, world-class mountain biking and city walking trails. At night stylish restaurants come alive with a vibrant entertainment scene.

Popular activities include the Story Bridge adventure climb and rock climbing at the Kangaroo Point cliffs; or cycle one of the many bicycle pathways that skirt the city.

Story Bridge adventure

Adelaide is a neat, flat city surrounded by superb gardens, overlooking the banks of the River Torrens. Stroll along the wide boulevards and historic buildings of North Terrace and Rundle Mall for boutiques showcasing high-end fashion. Adelaide is highly regarded for its fine food and quality restaurants. Gouger, Rundle, Hutt, O’Connell, Melbourne and Leigh Streets, King William Road and The Parade at Norwood are good places to start. The Adelaide Central Market is a great way to spend a Sunday morning.


There are many ways to enjoy the relaxed lifestyle of Perth. Free buses get you around the CBD where you can visit the Perth Mint, Swan Bells Tower, Art Gallery of Western Australia and many more attractions. King Street, Murray Street and Hay Street malls have many boutiques, art galleries, and restaurants.


Tropical Darwin offers a relaxed outdoor lifestyle combined with multicultural experiences, exciting wildlife encounters and fun events. It’s a small city, and easy to get around. You won’t find skyscrapers and high-rise buildings here, everything about Darwin is down-to-earth.

Sacred Aboriginal sites exist in and around Darwin, where you can learn about the world’s oldest living culture. Darwin also played an important role in Australia’s WWII history and many relics remain from this time.

Much of the city’s social activities take place at open air markets, outdoor festivals, in parks and reserves, by the beach or on boats down on Darwin Harbor.


Mitchell Street is the heart of Darwin’s restaurants and pub scene. The Darwin Waterfront Precinct and Mindil Beach night markets all offer entertainment, while the sleepy suburb of Parap on the outskirts of the city has some of the best collections of indigenous art in Australia.


Surrounded by sea on three sides, Darwin is an excellent base to explore Kakadu National Park, Litchfield and Nitmiluk National Parks, the Tiwi Islands and Arnhem Land.



Hobart is a city of natural beauty and cultural heritage characterized by warm sandstone buildings, bright sails on the water and fishing boats at the docks. Throughout this small, walk able city you’ll find 19th-century waterfront warehouses and many sites showcasing Australia’s convict history. Around Sullivan’s Cove, where the famous Sydney to Hobart yacht race finishes, there are good restaurants and unique shopping. Every Saturday the outdoor Salamanca Market comes alive.

Beach areas around Hobart include Sandy Bay, Cornelian Bay, Nutgrove, Kingston and Howrah. There are many more around Frederick Henry Bay. Take a luxury catamaran from Hobart’s waterfront down the D’Entrecasteaux Channel and you’ll arrive at Peppermint Bay.

With superb golden beaches, including the world renowned ‘Surfers Paradise’, the Gold Coast is a mix of cosmopolitan lifestyles, theme parks, high-end boutiques, and some of Australia’s best sporting events.

Its skyline is dominated by high-rise buildings, including the Q1, one of the world’s highest residential towers. The Gold Coast is all about glitz, glamour and fun. High Street Surfers Paradise is a new precinct for sophisticated food and fashion, while the bars and nightclubs of Cavil Avenue are the main hub of activity. There are also many theme parks close to town.

Popular beaches include South Stradbroke IslandThe Spit, Main Beach, BroadbeachMermaid BeachBurleigh Heads.

Broome is a relatively small town where the pace is slow. Take the time to look at the brilliant red color of the earth and the lush tropical greenery and flowers.

Major attractions are riding a camel into the sunset along the white sands of Cable Beach, visiting sites where dinosaurs once roamed at Gantheaume Point and bird-watching at world-renowned Roebuck Bay.


One of Broome’s natural treasures is the Staircase to the Moon. After the full moon from March to October, reflections stretch out across shiny mudflats creating the beautiful illusion of a long silver staircase.

Broome is the western gateway to The Kimberley region of Western Australia. Kangaroo Island, Australia’s third largest island, is located just 15 kilometers off the South Australian mainland. More than a third of the island is preserved as Conservation or National Parks. The island has five significant Wilderness Protection Areas. On its wild coastline, buffeted by the Southern Ocean, you will find abundant Australian wildlife in their natural habitat.


The marine wonderland of the Great Barrier Reef is an explosion of color and biodiversity that stretches for more than 2500 kilometers off the Queensland coast. It’s both the world’s biggest World Heritage Area and biggest coral reef system, and the biggest thing made out of living creatures on earth. It is formed of more than 3000 individual reefs and 900 coral cays and continental islands. These create a web of life for more than 1500 species of fish, one third of the world’s soft corals, 600 species of starfish and sea urchins, six species of endangered marine turtles and more than 30 species of whales and dolphins.

Blue Mountains, NSW:

The blue-hazed beauty, golden sandstone escarpments, dramatic cliffs and deep canyons of the Blue Mountains are just a 90-minute drive from Sydney. As well as a million hectares of World Heritage-listed wilderness, here you’ll find the world’s rarest tree, the prehistoric Wollemi Pine. There is also more than 400 different kinds of unique Australian animals such as the spotted-tail quell, yellow-bellied glider, and the long-nosed Potaro. One of the best ways to take it all in is on the Greater Blue Mountains Drive, a 1200 kilometer touring journey that links 18 different ‘discovery trails’ – each one unique.


Every day at dusk, Summerland Beach in the Phillip IslandNature Park, just 90 minutes from Melbourne, comes alive with thousands of little penguins. The wild ocean beaches, sheltered bays, blowholes and caves are also home to koalas, abundant bird life and fur seals. Join a wildlife cruise to see the colony of 16000 Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, one of the largest colonies in Australia, and spot koalas among the treetops at the Koala Conservation Centre.

Sunshine Coast:

The HMAS Brisbane was sunk off the Sunshine Coast in late July 2005 in order to create a dive able artificial reef in between 12-27 meters (40-89 feet) of water. Operators visit this site from Noosa and Mooloolaba.

New South Wales

The diving in New South Wales is somewhat overshadowed by Queensland to the north. However, there are several dive destinations along the coast that are more than worth a visit: many coastal areas have vibrant local dive communities, and some of the more northern towns do an extensive trade in teaching travelers to dive.


North Coast

Byron Bay’s excellent diving is starting to become a well known competitor to the best Queensland diving. As in much of northern New South Wales, the waters have a mix of tropical and temperate species. In addition the water temperature goes as high as 27f/81f and the visibility is on average around 15m. The sites are also currently well managed: there are a small number of commercial vessel launching licenses available, vessels use permanent moorings and over-diving isn’t taking place. Dolphin sightings are common on the boat trips and whale sightings regular between May and October.


The Solitary Islands Marine Park off Coffs Harbor has both tropical and subtropical marine life. Notables are grey nurse sharks, hard and soft coral, anemone fish, and colorful wrasse. Seeing large rays is unusual but not unheard of. Visibility is between 10 and 20 meters, and most of the interesting diving is shallower than 20 meters. Water temperature may be up to 25c in summer.

A comprehenive travel guide for Austrlia can be download in pdf format from the following urls:

The 4-Hour Workweek By Timothy Ferriss

After learning about the Pareto Principle (more commonly known as the 80-20 Principle), Tim Ferriss had a revelation: he streamlined his business, eliminating distractions and automating systems until it was not only more profitable, but also took less of his time. Much less. He took a “mini-retirement”, and then decided to write a book about “lifestyle design”, about creating a life that balances work and play, maximizing the positives of both. The 80/20 principle is the idea that 80% of your productivity comes from 20% of your time, and the other 20% of your productivity eats up 80% of your time.  Enjoy reading by downloading pdf file from

 The 4 Hour Work Week by Timothy Ferriss

The Art of Sleeping Well

Most of us do not realize the importance of good sleep for maintaining good health and emotional and metal well-being. Lack of sleep not only makes us irritable and lethargic, it also has a negative impact upon our work performance.


Sleep problems can also cause weight again, increase in stress and mood swings including depression.  To enjoy good sound sleep, the human body needs a balanced and healthy lifestyle.  Following these tips can help you achieve a healthier lifestyle, which can only come with deep restful sleep!.


  1. Include protein in your diet.  Proteins provide the body with an essential nutrient Tryptophan (an amino acid) that serves as a relaxant and induces sleep (source: Fish, Chicken, eggs, milk etc).
  2. Avoid having junk food and sweets before bedtime as these will cause your sugar level to rise and make it difficult for your body to fall asleep.
  3. Eating pulses and calcium rich food is yet another sleep-friendly nutrient that helps calm the nervous system where Vitamin C, almonds and cheese are equally effective.
  4. Avoid having coffee or tea to bed-time as caffeine is a stimulant which will only keep you awake at night.  Overeating and sleeping right after dinner must also be avoided.
  5. Avoid taking cough syrups containing alcohol before going to bed as although these are effective in sleep induction, they impair sleep during the second half of the night.
  6. Establish a routine by going to bed at the same time every night.  Exercise moderately starting from 15 minutes every morning and gradually increase the time to 30 minutes.Image